FaLang Language Switcher

Hazreti Mevlana Mohammed Jelaleddin Rumi 1207 - 1273

Destar

 

 

Come, come again, whoever you are come,

 Heathen, fire worshipper or idolatrous, come.

 Come even if you broke your penitence a hundred times,

 Ours is the portal of hope, come as you are.

 Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi

 

 

 

 HAZRET-I MEVLANA MOHAMMED JELALEDDIN RUMI
(His Life - His Personality - Thoughts - Works)

  

HIS NAME AND TITLES

Mevlana's name is Mohammad Jelaleddin and his titles are Lord (Hudavendigar), Mevlana, Mystery of God Almighty (Sirru'llahu'a'zam), Mevlevi and Rumi.

The title of Hudavendigar (Lord) was conferred upon him as a sign "of his outward and inward magnificence by his father, Sultan of Sholars W , Bahaeddin Veled. We often see the name Hudavendigar in Sipehsalar's work (? - 1312), Menakib-i Hudavendigar which is one of the main sources of Mevlevi History, and in Eflaki's work, Me’nakibul Arifin*

The title "Mevlana" began to be heard when he was young and started to teach in Konya. Eflaki always mentions him as Mevlana in his Menakib. The title that means "Our Lord" was used by Mevlevi saints from the time of Shems-i Tebrizi and Sultan Veled, and it almost became a proper name instead of his name.

Yunus (? - 1320) uses both titles together in his poetry:

Ever since the master (Mevlana) has cast his spritiul eyes on me, They have become the mirror of my heart"

Sirru'llahu'l-a'zam (Mystery of God Almighty) was conferred upon him by Eflaki but he did not use it in his writtings.

Kasim-i Envar from Tebriz (? -1432) used the title "Mevlana" first. Molla Cami also (1414 -1492) used the same title with reverence.

The word Rumi means an Anatolian. Jelaleddin was known widely as Rumi since he lived in Konya, a city in the province of Anatolia which was called Diyar^ i Rum (The Country of the old Romans) in the past, and spent of his time there and also his tomb was built in the same place.

He is remembered by such titles as; Molla Hiidavendigar, Molla Hunkar, Mevlana-yi Rumi, Mevlevi Rumi, Pir-i Rumi, Cenab~i Pir, Hazret-i Pir which are used by ordinary followers, lovers, and great followers who stand for Mevlana. Until recently, in Konya, in Anatolia the sons of Mevlana were called Molla Hunkar's sons or Mol-la's sons.

 

HIS BIRTH PLACE, DATE GENEALOGY

The birthplace of Mevlana, Balkh in the present northern Afganistan was an old Turkish cultural center. At that time, the countryMevlana's House which Balkh belonged to was called Horasan.

Since Sasani times, Horasan was the cradle of Islamic Iranian Literature and the environment of the first Iranian poets after the acceptance of Islam.

They generally accepted birthdate of Mevlana is 6 Rebiul-ewel (The third month of the Lunar Year), 604 [604 /September 30 th. / 1207].

His mother, who belonged to a "noble family, was Riikneddin's, the governor of Balkh, daughter Mumine Hatun. His paternal grandmother is the Turkish princess Melike-i Cihan Emetullah Sultan, a member of Harzcmshahs (East Turkish Sultanate -1157).

His father is Mohammed Bahaeddin known as Sultanu'l-Ule'tna (Leader of Scholars). His grandfather is Ahmet Hatibi's son, Huseyin Hatibi.

Hüseyin Hatibi was a scholar whose knowledge was as vast and boundless as an ocean. Nigaburlu Raziyiiddin, considered a great learned man and a scholar, was one of his students.

Some sources and naturally the great Mevlevis write down that Sultanu'l Ulema Bahaeddin Veled's lineage descended from the Prophet Mohammed's grandson Huseyin in the thirteenth generation and paternal ancestors descended from Ebubekir Siddik in the tenth generation. Some researchers consider this to be untrue though it was accepted by Mevlevis for ages- We want to give Mevlana's viewpoint about hisdescendants. He says:

"A hundred thousand blessings on his (Mohammed) spirit and on the advent and cycle of his sons. Those fortunate caliph-born sons of his are born of the substance of his soul and heart. Whether they be of Baghdad or Herat or Rayy, they are his progeny without admixture of water and earth. Wherever the rose-bough blossoms it is still the same rose, wherever the wine jar bubbles it is the same wine." (3)

Sultanul-Ulema Bahaeddin Veled was born in Balkh(545/1150).(4)

His relation with-the order of dervishes, with recital suggestion and the cloak began through his grandfather, Ahmet Hatibi, who was the famous Imam Gazali's brother. Imam Gazali (?-1123) dealt with love in his works and his main emphasis was on love.

Sultanul-Ulema, who was brought up through his father's and, grandfathers divine knowledge and enlightment, profited from Necmiid-din Kubra andbecame one of his successors.
 

BAHAEDDIN VELED'S PERSONALITY

Bahaeddin Veled was a revelationist and an experienced master who deeply understood inward meaning. He was peerless in outward and inward sciences. He was like an endless ocean made up of theology and divine reality. He was a person who was admired and respected by everybody. He was very modest and pious and he fought against his soul. He applied himself to solve the difficult fetwas from the distant regions of Horasan. According to the order ot the scripture he had a definite amount of money from the public treasury and he lived on that definite salary. He did not get anything from the foundation.(5)

He was officially titled the Sultan of the scholars by his colleagues. It was rumoured that his title was given to him by the Prophet Mohammad. The thoughts and feelings of an important Mevlevi about this title is like that. The Turks had a custom that showed their good characters. They did not want those who were very talented and had virtue to be lost without showing them. They used to title them tp show their importance and to encourage the people to study both science and theology- This tradition was important evidence to show the Turks' respect for virtue and science. They had to use their titles even over their signatures. As for them, they considered this title a prize and were never proud of them.

Sultanu'l-Ulema was dressed like a scholar. He used to teach people between the morning time of prayer and the noon time of prayer everyday and offer them useful information. He often talked to them about divine reality and theology after the noon time of prayer. He used to preach to all people on Monday morning,

Bahaeddin Veled gave sermons in a state of ecstasy and enthusiasm-Those who were listening to him were enraptured by the thoughts which he expressed amorously and sagaciously- He usually refused the Greek scholar's thoughts in his preaching, and he often asked the question: "How can those who follow tKose scholars who do not give importance to sacred scriptures hope to be saved? (6)

And he occasionally spoke against Fahreddin Razi Harzem?ah, and the others who were considered to be innovators and pointed 'out that the best way was that of the Prophet Mohammed. (7)

One day in his preaching he said to Fahreddin tiarzemgah and the innovation group: " You left relevation and relious points; thousands of hearts that were in peace ran to a few dark nooks. You left so many miracles and ran after images. Did not those lights aid you? Why did that slight darkness blacken your world? This ignorance is just because your ego is dominating you and making you lived in idleness and disobedience without worshipping God.(8)

As a matter of fact Fahri Razi, who did not like sufis and did not want them to be respected by Harzem?ah, and because he was annoyed by Sultanu'l Ulema's manners, informed Harzem?ah against Ulema (scholars). As a result of this, Sultanul-Ulema emigrated from Balkh because Harzemgah hurt his feelings. (9)

Sultan Veled explained why his grandfather emigrated in his book called " Ibtidaname" like this:

Bahaeddin Veled was hurt by the ones who lived in 'Balkh. The feelings of this unfading and everlasting Muslim leader were hurt- At once he heard the words of God, « O, the only brave man; the ruler of the poles and the leaders, this society has hurt you; you get out from your enemies; let me put them in trouble and put them, to be tortured. » When he heard these words he moved from Balkh to Hejaz as he was greatly influenced by that secret. When he was on the way to Hejaz, he-heard that Tatars had attacked Balkh and the Muslim troops had been defeated. They had invaded Balkh and killed innumerable people and destroyed large cities. God has very different types of punishmet." (10)

The researchers show the invasion of the wild Mongols as the reason of Sultanu'l-Ulema's emigration. They think it is more reasonable and fits to the historic facts.

Surely there is reason in every event, and in the result of it and there is no doubt that the creator of everything is God. LetTs hear the reason and results of this migration of Mevlana's :

"God showed more favour to the people who lived in Anatolia and those people deserved mercy with Siddik'i-Ekber's prayer. The best country is theirs, but the people of this country is theirs, and the people of this country were not informed of God's universe of loving and intrinsic enjoyment. God the real creator of the events, did us a favour; He showed a reason and caused us to come to Anatolia from Horasan. God gave a place to our descendants in Anatolia and wanted us to bring them up and educate them so well that they could enlighten the people in this country with mystical elixir. God brought me here, so that I can. mix with the people in Anatolia and form a religious sect " (11)
 

EMIGRATING FROM BALKH

After leaving Balkh (1212-1213), Sultanu'l-Ulema intended to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He left for Baghdat. WTien he arrived in Nishabur, Sheikh Feriduddin Attar was one of the great men of the religious order called Kübreviye, and he was educated by Necmuddin Kubra (7-1221). Besides, he "was one of the giants of mystic literature and his "works were considered to be the highest ones of mediation.(13)

This great sufi, Sheikh Attar sees the perfection in Mevlana's writings and gives him his own Masnavi called "Esrar-Name" as a present. He also says to Mevlana's father :"This son of yours will cause a stir in the World in a short time." (14)

When Sultanu'l-Ulema approached Baghdat with the caravan, the guardians of the city asked them which tribe they belonged to and where they were coming from and where they were heading for. Bahaaddin Veled, putting his head out of the wooden frame of his coach, said : "We are coming from God and going to God. Nobody but God has power. We come from nowwhere and go to the same point." When Sheikh Shahabettin Suhreverdi (1145-1235) heard this, he stated that nobody but Bahaeddin Veled could say such words. He went to give them a warm welcome. When they met, §ahabettin Suhreverdi dismounted his horse, kissed Baha Veled's knees gently. He asked them to honour the lodge, but Sultanu'l'Ulema went to the med-rese saying it was more convenient for Imams. Suhreverdi paid compliments and treated him kindly helping him take off his boots. (15)

Baha Veled did not stay longer than three days and left for the Kaaba, taking the Kufe road. After becoming a pilgrim, he came over to Damascus on the way back. He talked to Sheikh Muhiddin Ibnu'l-Arabi (1165-1240) in Damascus. Sheikh Muhyiddin Ibnul-Arabi said in astonishment that an ocean was going after a sea, looking at Mevlana who was walking behind Sultanu'l-Ulema. (16)

Baha Veled with his only son Mevlana came to Anatolia from Damascus.They had been to Malatya, Erzincan and Karaman. Finally, they settled in Konya. Sultan Veled says-: "Mevlana came to Anatolia from Kaaba to bring divine grace to the people there. He chose Konya in Anatolia"(17)

 

MEVLANA'S MARRIAGE

Listening to his father's advice when they were in Karaman (622/ 1225), Mevlana married Gevher Banvi, the good-tempered, beautiful daughter of Hodja §erafeddin Lala who was a very respected and blessed. Mevlana was at the age of eighteen when he got married.(18) Mohammed Bahaeddin Veled who was widely known as Sultan Veled, and Alaeddin Mohammed are the fruits of this marriage.

 

THEIR SETTLEMENT IN KONYA

Baha Veled settled in Konya, the capital of the Seljukian Turks on May 3, 1228. <19> Soon after this,

Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad ruled from 1219 to 1236), who was very religious and fond of Islam mysticism, held a big meeting in Sujtanul-Ulema's honour in his palace. He became a novice of Baha Veled in the presence of all the scholars, ie learned, judges, generous group and solitaries. Following the Sultan, all important people became his novices.

 

BAHA VELED'S DEATH

Baha Veled passed away on 18 Rebiul-Ahir, 628 (The fourth month of the lunar year) The late Friday morning of February 24, 1231. (21) He left his work Maarif and the benevolent successor Mohammed Celaleddin in this World.

Sultanul-Ulema lived in such a way that he did not go after fame or interest and his only aim was to express his ideas and feelings. Mean while he did not neglect training and enlightening the people around. Therefore, in a way his works "Maarif" is a review of his thoughts and feelings.
 

MAARIF

Maarif is a mystic and moral work up of Bahaeddin Veled's speeches, sermons and advice written down by made himself. Maarif, a first class work, in terms of its subject, contents and style, is of great significance because of its own value and impact on Mevlana (23)

The facts of sufism were expressed very clearly and brightly in Maarif. The fine taste, the beauty of the phrases and very nice examples of poetic prose in many parts of the work can easily be seen with little attention.(24)

When Baha Veled passed away, Mevlana was twenty-four years old. Because of his father's will (25) and followers' demand, (26) he took-over his father's post. Mevlana was unique in asceticism, and in delicacy, in science, theology and Fatwa like his father and he raised the flag of religion. (27)
 

SEYYID BURHANEDDIN

After his father's death, Mevlana had no spiritual guide for a year until he met Seyyid Burhaneddin. In 629/1232, his fathers respected.

Kaliphat, Seyyid Burhaneddin, Muhakkik-i Tirmizi came to Konya from Turkistan and became his spiritual guide and teacher.

Seyyid Burhaneddin was a perfect guide of very high rank. His compilation named "Maarif is evidence of his comprehension. He was called Seyyid-i Sirdan because he knew the secrets in hearts.

Seyyid Burhaneddin said to Mevlana whom he put on his shoulders and took for a walk like a Lala and an Atabek in Mevlana's childhood :

"There is no other person like you in science, you are superior, but your father was a mystic model. Look him and give up the words. You seized his words with your hands, but be intoxicated with his position like me. So, become a complete inheritor. Resemble the sun in giving off light to the World. You are the inheritor of your father outwardly but I have got the essence. Harmonize with me and look to his friend." (28)

When Mevlana heard these words from him, he became the soul. He became his follower sincerely and completely like a dead man.

The first follower of Mevlana was Seyyid Burhaneddin whom he considered as his father. When Seyyid Burhaneddin came to Konya, Mevlana served him for nine years. (29) During this period of time he became experienced and mature with the perfect wise man's advice concerning zeal and asceticism. He became a saintly man and denied himself. He rose to the degree of Hiidavendigarhk. Mevlana addresses himself in his Masnevi like this :

"Become mature and be far from change for the worse; go, become the light, like Burhan-i Muhaggig. When you have escaped from self, you have become the proof (of God), when the slave (in you) has become non-existent you have become the King." (30)

 

MEVLANA'S JOURNEY TO HALEP AND SHAM (Damascus) FOR EDUCATION

Mevlana went to Halep with the permission of Seyyid Burhaneddin in order to specialize in high sciences. He took lessons from Adimoglu Kemaleddin who had excellent works and was uniquely omniscient in canon, in interpretation and methods in Halaviyye Medrese. This person showed respect and regarded Mevlana as superior to his friends noticing the nobility and the guiding light on his face. (31)

Mevlana went to Sham when he had finished his education in Halep. He stayed there for four years in order to research in science and learn special skills. During this period Sham, was the centre of science and comprehension and was a shelter for knowledgeable and learned men who escaped from Mongol intrigues. When Mevlana was in Sham, he talked to Sheikh Muhyiddin Arabi, who was the Sultan of wise-men and Sadeddin Hamevi, who had attained to the degres of perfection, Osman Rumi, who was the master of Sheikhs and Rahhani Fakir Evhaeddin Kirmani and Sultan Sadrettin Konevi, who was the Sultan of traditionists. (32) Sipehsalar says that Mevlana talked to Shem-seddin Tebrizi, who was the Sultan of chiefs and saints and the followers in Damascus. (33)

According to Eflaki, this interview lasted for a short period and was like this : "One day Shems was among the people, he met Mevlana and kissed his hand. He said, « Understand me, the money-changer of the World! » (34) About eight years after this moment's interview, His excellency Shems came to Konya and talked to Mevlana in a friendly way."

 

HIS MEETING WITH SHEMS FROM TEBRIZ

Who is that Shems? That person's name is Shemseddin Mohammed and he was born in 582/1186. Shems who was the son of Melekdad's son, Ali, from Tebriz joined Sheikh Ebubekir Sellebaf from Tebriz (Sellebaf means basketmaker) who was the most significant of the time in discovering the secrets of the hearts and in guardianship. Besides, Shems completed his training and education thanks to his teaching- As Shems was not satisfied with the position he reached, he set out to find more mature spiritual guides- He travelled for years until he got exhausted and talked to the wise of that time. The scholars who contacted him called him Shems-i Perende (The flying Sun) allusively. (40)

As a matter of fact, Shems was a very profound.

Sufi- He was o lover of God who could not find a real friend who could satisfy him in conversation, although he had talked to very many sheikhs. He was a great man who lived in ecstasy fearlessly and had a great impact but always felt the responsibility of discovering his own spirit. He had been a free dervish mentally and spiritually since his childhood. The two meaning ful events in two rumours I will remark below may point out Shemsf characteristics and disposition.

 

QUOTED FROM EFLAKI:(41)

There was a big ceremony of giving a post and they were going to give title of "Sheikh" to a great person. All scholars, sheikhs, philosophers, governors and the wise were present at that ceremony. Mevlana Jalaladdin, like a treasure, was meditating in one corner. All of a sudden he stood up and addressed them: "How long are you going to boast, talking about the rumours of this or that person and run in the field of men monting a saddle without a horse? Isn't there anybody among you who can say he is inspired by God? How long are you going to 'walk with others' staffs?"

 

FROM SHEMS HIMSELF :(42)

I wasn't at the age of adoloscence yet. I would feel like eating or drinking for days when I dived in the sea of love. One day my father scolded me saying : "Son, I don't like the way you act and I am afraid your end will be disasterous*" I answered : "Father, do you know what the relation between us is like? If they put a goose egg among the eggs under a hen, the chicks hatch when it is the time. Those chicks go after their mother altogether. When they come across a lake on the way, the gosling hatched out of the goose egg jumps into the water. When the hen sees it, she gets panicked thinking that her chick will be drowned. Whereas, the gosling swims merrily. The difference between you and me is like that."

 

SHEMSI ARRIVAL IN KONYA (Eflaki narrates that):

Shems, was in mediation and he was very excited one night. Being in ecstacy because of seeing God, he prayed to God : "O, my God! I want you to reveal me one of your secret followers." He was in' spired by God that what he wanted was mevlana who was in Anatolia. (43) His remarks in his articles confirm this narration,

Being inspired, Shems arrived in Konya on November 29,1244 (45) and rented a room in Shekerciler Inn. This Seyyid Burhaneddin's discovery came true. Mevlana and Shems, the two gifted men, the two lights, the two spirits met finally. Shems was sixty and Mevlana was Thirty-eight years old then. These two sacred lovers dedicated themselves to God and conversed concerning God. At this point, we will read the most important matter, the reform in Mevlana's life from Sultan Veled's brief statement. We will not mention the narrations about his retirement for devotion and the meeting, no matter how important they are.

Sultan Veled narrates that i (46)

"All of a sudden Shemseddin came to him, the shade disappeared in the light of his brilliance. A quiet voice of love was heard from the world of love. The beloved told him his secrets. He said: "You are the hostage of the spiritual essence but you must know that I am the inward spiritual essence. I am the secret of secrets and the light of moral lights and even the saints cannot reach my secrets. Love is also* a curtain in my way. Even a living love is dead before me. The eternal sultanate is the lovers' but the beloveds' sovereignty is dearer than it. Shems invited Mevlana to an unusual world. It was such a world that neither a Turk nor an Arab saw it. The master sheikh (That is Mevlana) began to relearn study in his presence.

He had reached the end but then he began from the very beginning. While being obeyed, he was obeyed, he was obeying him. He was unique in being learned but the knowledge he was being offered was thoroghly new."

And again we learn the following important point from Sultan Veled : "There is more important rank than rank of saints and dervishes in the world and that is the belovedness. No ear had heard of the state of those at this stage. No information had come to the world concerning the stage of the beloved. Shems from Tebriz, may God furnish us with his secret which appeared and raised Mevlana from the stage of the lover to the stage of the beloved that had never been heard so far. Mevlana was the pearl of the sea of the beloved in eternity; everything changes into its origin." (47)

Sultan Veled's resembling Mevlana to Moses and Shems to Hidir is actually meaningful and humorous. About this matter he said :

"Although Moses was one of the big prophets who was able to talk to God, he looked for H?d?r and became the friend of the friends of God. Although Mevlana had reached the highest spiritual rank, the miracles, the secrets of his time, he looked for Tebriz-i Shems."

In this case, Shems looked for Mevlana and vice versa. Shems was in love with Mevlana and Mevlana was in love with him, too. The lover was also the beloved. Mevlana says that:

"The beloveds look for the lovers eagerly. All the beloved are hunted by the lovers. Whoever is a lover, he is surely the beloved at the same time as he is loved by the beloved. The thirsty ones look for water in the world and the water also looks for the thirsty ones".

This point is certain in a sacred verse of the Koran which rough'" means: "God loves them and they love God" (K.V, 54). That meai.-first God is the lover and the ones who are loved are the beloved. Than the good people become lovers and God the beloved

Mevlana, who met Shems, confined all his time to Shems' talks, participated in his lights and entered an absolutely new world. His secret love in his piety and devotion came out and he whirled in ecstacy with Shems under his charm.

The ones who were unable to understand the divine secret of his novices and the inhabitans of Konya said : 'Who is that man who grasped our sheikh and removed him away like a river carrying a staw away. He must be a witch who charmed our sheikh with his spell and charm to himself. Such rumours were spread. (48)

Consequently Shems was hurt and left Konya in spite of Mevlana's ardent request, 21 ?ewal, 643/March 14, 1246 on Thursday.

 

SHEMS' RETURN TO KONYA

Shems left Damascus for Konya accepting Mevlana's invitation (644/1247), Sultan Veled travelled on foot more than a month on the way back due to his love and respect for Shems. (51) They arrived in Konya after the long trip which was particularly prosperous for Sultan Veled. Everybody was pleased with Shems' coming back.Mevlana was relieved of the trouble of missing Shems. Parties were given and whirling dances were held in his honour.

The days full of love and friendship did not last long. The insolent ones began to behave shamelessly again.

Shems realized that they were loaded with hatred, they had no love in their hearts and they became the slaves of their egoism and they were trying to get rid of him. He said to Sultan Veled :

"You see they came together in violence again. They want to part me from Mevlana, who is unique in every subject and rejoice over my departure* This time I want to go somewhere nobody will be able to find me and even a trace of mine won't be found."(52)

 

SHEMS' MISSING

All of a sudden Shems disappeared in 645/1247-1248. Mevlana cried with grief, so they looked for Shems everywhere. Nobody heard of him. Neither a sign was found nor a word was received from him.(53)

Eflaki says Shems was assasinated in his work, Menakibiil'Arif and Cami also says the same in Nefehatii'1-Uns. Those who accept Shems' honour of martyrdom depend on those two sources. We read in Mevlana's works, from Sultan Veled's Iptida-Name, and from Menakib-i Hiidavendigar by Ahmet Sipehsalar, who had been in Mev-lana's service for forty years. Shems left Konya and disappeared.

About this M. Bahari Beytur, one of the great Mevlevis of last century says :

"I'm sure that his disappearance is a fact. My master, teacher, one of the great scholars Hiiseyin Fahri Dede who was the sheikh of Bahariye Mevlevi Lodge where we were educated, Jalaleddin dede, the Sheikh of Yenikapi Mevlevi lodge Ahmet Remzi Dede, the sheikh of Uskiidar Mevlevi lodge, and Veled (Qelebi Efendi, on of the latest heads of the lodge who studied the history of Mevlevi Sect in detail do not agree to the assasination of Shems."(54)

Prof Dr. Bedüizzaman Füruzanfer also writes that Shems got lost, in his book, Mevlana Jalaleddin.(55)

The tomb in Konya which is referred to as Shems' is a monument of appreciation put up in order to commemorate Shems' sanctifying glorification. Those who visit this tomb not only remember Shems but also are enlightened by his sacred spirit. Therefore this tomb is a holy place tobe visited for both the people who believe Shems disappered and the ones who believe he was assasinated.(56)

 

MEVLANA AFTER SHEMS' MISSING

Mevlana asked everybody about Shems after his dissapperance. Whenever a person gave him a piece of information about Shems, whether it was true or not, Mevlana thanked him and gave him his cloak and turban for the good news. One day a man brought Mevlana the news that he had seen Shems in Damascus. Mevlana became so happy that he gave the man his turban, cloak and everything he had on. One of Mevlana's friends told him that the news was not true and that news had given the cloak and turban for the false news and added that In would have given his soul if the news had been true.(57)

Sultan Veled describes Mevlana's unsteady and wild state on those days like this :

"He confined himself to Shems all day and night anc whirled on the earth like the sky. His cries were heard by everyone. He gave all his money, gold and silver and possessions to the musicions who sang or played at the lodge. He performed whirling dances all the time without resting for a moment. Such a great man, such a judge of Islamic Law, th Sheikh and Imam of the two Worlds was acting wildly and exuberantly. Everybody, old or young, took to whirling and rode the celestial horse of love, Burak (A vehicle on which Mohammed travelled to God) What they were constantly reciting were ghaz-els and couplets. Love dominated them and everything except love was nonsense for them. They were living in such an ecstacy, love and pleasure.(58) After this explanation of Sultan Veled, is it possible not to remember Fuzuli's following stanza?

'To attain dignity via knowledge is a vain idea

It is love in the universe

It is love that counts while knowledge

is only words uttered."

 

MEVLANAS TRIP TO DAMASCUS AND HIS RETURN

Mevlana searched for Shems. He wrote poems about Shems' departure which burn hearts and give pain to them. His heart cooled off a little with the news that Shems was in Damascus. Mevlana and some of his friends went to damascus to look for Shems. He asked after him and searched for him but could not find him. They came back to Konya. After a while Mevlana and his friends went to damascus again to look Shems with great eagerness. The dates of these two last trips are unknown, but the probaple dates are 645/1248-647/1250.

Mevlana stayed in damascus for a few months during his fourth journey but he could not find him.

As Sultan Veled expressed it, Mevlana couldn't find Shems' body but found his spirit in his own body. He saw Shems in his own body, that looked like the moon and said:

"Physically I am seperate but without life and body we are one and the same. O thee that are looking for Him! You can be either him or me. He is me and I am Him."(59)

"Since I am Him, then what am I looking for? I am His copy, then let me speak of myself. I was looking for myself; I was fermenting like grape-juice. Grape juice does not ferment for others. It accords with its beauty and comes into action in order to menifest it"(60)

For this purpose, it will be convenient to quote th narration from Eflaki :

"Shemseddin from Malatya, who was one of the sublime professors of theology and philosophy said: «One day, Mevlana was in the garden of Qelebi Husameddin,'61' who was a Ciineyd his feet in the river was offering divine knowledge* While speaking, he was greatly praising*the Sultan of the Poor, Shems from Tebriz* Hearing this, Miiderrisoglu Bahaeddin who was one of the leading scholars sighed and said: "What a pity! What a great pity!"

"Why is it a pity? Why are you so sad? What does this sorrow mean in our gathering?" asked Mevlana. Bedreddin felt ashamed and in reverence said : "I am worried that I can't reach Shems and make use of his presence."

Mevlana became silent for a while and said nothing. Then, he said: "You did not reach Shems but I swear upon my father's sacred spirit that you reached the person who had one hundred thousand Shems on each one of his hair and reached the one the secret of whom astonished even Shems. » Upon this Mevlana's friend became cheerful and began to whirl. Then, he began to recite the following lyric poem, ghazel:

"All of sudden I uttered the name of rose and rose-garden. Upon hearing these names, the rosy cheeked beloved caressing my cheeks said:

'I am the king and the life of rose. How dare you seek something else when you are in the presence of a king like me?' (63)

 

A FEW WORDS ABOUT MEVLANA AND SHEMS

Mevlana summed up his spiritual contemplative life in the single line :

" I was raw, I was cooked and then burnt".

He was trained and educated by his father, Sultanu'l-Ulema and by Seyyid Burhaneddin's knowledge, and he was burnt by the fire of love of his rare beauty he saw in Shems' mirror.(64)

Mevlana had become mature when he met Shems in Konya. Shems became a mirror for Mevlana. Mevlana fell in love with his unique beauty he saw in Shems' mirror or he enlivened the love of God in Shems.(65)

Mevlana's love for Shems is the criterion of his love of God. For he saw the birght manifestation of God in Shems.

Mevlana was a rose about to bloom and Shems became a gentle breeze for him. Mevlana was the wine of love and Shems became a wine glass for him. In fact, Mevlana was very great and Shems encouraged him and guided him in a way. (66) Words to say on that matter are countless. In other words Shems lit Mevlana but such a big volcano was formed that he himself burnt among its flames(67)

 

MAKALAT-AL SHEMS

Shems has a work called Makalat. It is a selection containing conversations between Shems and Mevlana, Shems' speeches in some services and his answers to the followers of the order and to the non-believers. The awkward, deficient sentences show that Shems did not write it down himself.(68)

Füruzanfer points out the literary importance of that work saying 'The importance of Makalat is great from the points of view of the attraction and elegance of phrases and the beauty of the words in the book. It is one of the great treasures of the Persian language and literature. If there were not incomplete and irrelevant parts in Makalat due to the mistakes or the person who wrote it down, it would be one of the best Moslem mystic works."

 

SEIKH SALAHADDIN ZERKUB

Mevlana on his last Damascus Journey gave up searching for Shems after.seeing him in himself and turned to Konya as completely happy. After this journey Mevlana spread religious poems for twenty-three years. But he never dealt with bringing up the people because he was completely exalted. He gave the task of bringing up the people to one of his "most elite and skilled friends. He appointed Sheikh Sala-haddin Zerkub from Konya to this job and told his friends, "I want all of you to be around Sheikh Salahaddin" and asked them to show him respect and love. He also showed a deep love to sheikh Salahaddin next to Shems.(69)

Sheikh Salahaddin was an illiterate person. He spent his time with the work in his jewellery shop. Once Mevlana, passing through the shop, heard the sound of hammers and began to whiril with the harmony of these sounds.

Those who did not find Sheikh Salahaddin approprite for this post were jealous of Mevlana's symathy for him. They attempted to insult sheik Salahaddin as they did Shems.

He just said he was just a mirror of Mevlana not another character. For ten years they were close friends. Then, Sheikh Salahaddin became sick and died in August 957/1259. He was buried near Sultanul-Ulema.

 

CELEBI HUSAMEDDIN

Mevlana described Qelebi Husameddin at the begining of his Mesnevi as a perfect person. He said :

'The key of the treasuries of the empire, The trustee of the riches stored in the earth, thi father of virtues, the sound of the truth and religion, Hasan son of Mohammed son of al-Hasan generally known as Ibn Akki Turk, the Abu Yazd of the time the Junayd of the age, the entirely veracious son of an entirely veracios sire and gransire^May God be well pleased with him and with them-a native Urmiye. May God bless him and his ancestors."

After the death of Sheikh Salahaddin Mevlana chose Qelebi Husameddin for himself as a close companion and caliph. Mevlana said to his fruends :

"You should respect him and open your wings in front of him. You should carry out all his orders and plant the seeds of his love in your hearts and I hight your eyes with him. May your eyes be lightened with him, in such a rose garden and a* the edge of the river. Because he gives secrets to those who cannot reach the secret of God* He gives wings to those who haven't got them. He grants love to guide everybody. He gives love and reality to everybody He is the light of God and he is a mine of God's mercy*" (70)

All his friends obeyed him, too. Each of them were ashamed of their rude behaviour in doing wrong before Sheikh Salahaddin and Shems. They all submitted to Qelebi Husameddin who was a real man of God without jealousy. None of them were separated from that group. They all accepted the orders with heart and soul.

Celebi Husameddin, who worked hard in the protection of the Sharia and in following the faith of the Prophet Mohammed, is an admirer of Mevlana.

Although Celebi is a Shafi'i, he wants to follow Mevlana's sect. One day he comes to the presence of Mevlana and says, "Because Mevlana is a Hanafi, I want to follow his sect." But, Mevlana says: " No. No. It is very convenient to conform with your own sect and follow it, but you follow me and direct people to our way of love."

Mevlana's love was such that he never felt Hiisameddin's side for even a moment. He only became happy in the group where Husameddin was. Husameddin gave him comfort and joy. For Mevlana it was only Husameddin Qelebi, who understood the meaning of the truth. As you see, Qelebi Husameddin found Mesnevi the greatest didactic work of Islamic mystic literature by seeing Mevlana's spirit which resembles never ending treasure.

Sipehsalar says :

"Actually Mesnevi was written by the request of Qelebi Husameddin. Even non-muslim monotheists thank Qelebi in connection with Mesnevi being written. They cannot pay their debts of gratitude for this great work till the Doomsday."

 

THE MESNEVI IS BORN

That was the reason why Mesnevi was written, the most beautiful keepsake of conversations that passed between Mevlana and (Qelebi. Qelebi Husameddin realized that his friends were zealously busy with sheik Feriduddin Attar and Hakim Senai's works, and they enjoyed the secrets of these works, but their peculiar meanings appeared strange to them, so (Qelebi Husameddin wanted Mevlana to have a work which contained the mystical truth, good-manners and the details of God's way. Husameddin was only waiting\for an opportunity to mention this idea to Mevlana.

One day the opportunity came. When they were together, Husameddin began to explain his idea to Mevlana by saying:

"My Sultan! You have composed many poems in the ghaz-el form. The Divan would be large if you were to write a book similar to the Ilahiname of Hakim Senai or the Mantik'ut-Tavn of Feriduddin Attar. This work of yours will be the fellow traveller of all mintrels. From now on, minstrels would fill their hearts with your work, this is the grace of God."

Mevlana smiled at Qelebi's words. From the folds of his turban, he removed a piece of paper which contained the eighteen verses of Mesnevi and handed it to Celebi. On this paper the first line begins like this:

"Listen to the reed how it tells a tale, complaining of separations", and it ends with this line:

« None that are raw understand the state of the ripe, therefore my words must be brief. Farewell!"

Then Mevlana said:

"Before you had not got such an idea, God inspired me to write such a book. Now come and fly as high as you can through the sky. Then go to the Prophet Mohemmed's Voice to heaven, following Mohammed's way."

In just the same way Mevlana explains in the fourth volume of Mesnevi (in the first lines).

 

SEB-I ARUS

 

Mevlana, the sun of culture and love, was born to the infinite sky on Cemazelahir 672/six month of the lunar year/17. December 1273 Sunday at dawn with all his light and beauties. He put off his mortal clothes. Put on the clothes made of dawn and lightning which is light forever. The members of the order of Whirling Dervishes call that night §eb-i Arus,

While going to his infinite voyage, Mevlana said, "While my coffin is being taken when I am dead, do not think that I have the trouble of this universe. When you see my corpse, do not say separation, separation. In that time I will have meeting, seeing. When you put me in a grave, do not say to me farewell, farewell because the grave is the curtain of the heavens*"

 

MEVLANA'S FUNERAL

Old or young, Muslim or not all the inhabitants of Konya attended Mevlana's funeral. The beautiful voiced keepers were reading verses of the Koran with rapture, the pleasant voiced muezzins were giving calls to prayers, the beautiful readers were reading the Elegy which he had told before his death. Neys were being played, the tambourines were being beaten, and haliles were being played. There were many people who were dancing and shouting and feeling faint. They burst into tears.

Even Christians and Jews were behaving like Moslems as if they felt the same sorrow and they were crying and shouting and reading verses from the Psalms of David, The Pentateuch and the Bible. Moslems could not make them go away by sticks or swords. When they said to them, "What is the relation between this occasion and you? This religion and Sultan Mevlana are ours* He is our Imam." Then, they said: " We understood the realities of Moses, Jesus and the other prophets from his clear words and saw in him the nature and behaviour of the mature prophets that we had read in our books. If you are his friend, we are his friend, too. He said that 72 nations listened to their secret from them and that they were a flute that gave hundreds of sounds out of a screen. Mevlana's body is the sun of realities that shines on people and gives them favour. All of the world likes sun. All houses are being lightened by its light. Mevlana is like bread. Nobody can say that he does not need bread. Is there any hungry person who runs away from bread?"

Because of Mevlana's will, Sheik Sadreddin, who intended to make people pray for Mevlana, said: "Ah" and praying.

The inhabitants of Konya and Mevlana's friends were talking about his pleasant living, good behaviour, and love of God, not giving importance to the World and giving himself completely to God and beinghumble.

 

THE GREEN DOME

The green Dome, called Kubbe-i Hadra, was built during the reign of Celebi Husameddin. The architect of the türbe was Bedreddin from Tebriz. The sarcophagus made of walnut was accepted as a masterpiece of Seljuki art, and was carved by Selimoglu Abdülvahid.

Mevlana is calling his visitors to be cheerful and not to look for his grave on the floor since it is at the heart of the sensible men.

© Copyright 2012 Mawlavi Ring. All Rights Reserved